Fort Allen City Maps

Dublin Core

Title

Fort Allen City Maps

Description

Two maps, one of the bay with island and one of peninsula. Each map is surrounded by details that include a picture and a paragraph about the specific landmark.

Coverage

Date Created

1992

Date Modified

2014 (Removed)

Medium

Plastic

Historical Marker Item Type Metadata

Inscription

Left Map (Counter-Clockwise from top left)

1. U.S. Customs House 312 Fore Street
This striking Grecian style construction opened April 1, 1872 following the loss of two previous Custom Houses located on Exchange Street. Both were destroyed by fires in 1845 and in 1866.

2. Fort Allen Park
This 4.5 acre park where you are now standing is adjacent to the Eastern Promenade. In 1775 an earthen fort was built here and later named Fort Allen, honoring Commander William Henry Allen (1784-1813), U.S. Navy. No shots were ever fired in anger from Fort Allen. The park offers one of Portland’s best views of the island, lighthouses, wharves, and waterfront activities of Casco Bay.

3. Eastern Promenade
More the 60 acres of land for the Eastern “Prom” were acquired by the city in 1836. Munjoy Hill, named for its first settler, George Munjoy, rises behind the park. The Cleeve and Tucker Memorial found at the head of Congress Street, honors Portland’s first settlers. It is made of granite from North Jay, Maine.

4. Portland Observatory 138 Congress Street
Captain Lemual Moody was the principal planner and architect for this wooden tower, which was built in 1807 to observe and send flag signals to ships plying the waters of Casco Bay. The Observatory played an important role in Portland’s history for well over a century. Its original frame-work is largely intact. The Observatory is open to the public during the summer months.

5. Baxter Boulevard and Back Cove
Baxter Boulevard is named in honor of James Phinney Baxter (1831-1921), successful businessman, author, nature lover, and mayor of Portland from 1893-1897. Under his direction, Portland acquired a strip of land around Back Cove, and built a road and walking path there in 1917. The boulevard completes the chain of Parks planned by the Olmsted Brothers landscape architects. The eastern part of the coves is a sanctuary for migratory birds.

6. City Hall 389 Congress Street
This handsome building which dates from 1912 was designed by the architectural firm of Ciarrere and Hastings designers of the New York Public Library built in 1911. Portland architects John Calvin Stevens and his son, John Howard Stevens, were associate architects. Portland is justly proud of the fine 2,300 seat auditorium and the renowned Kotszchmar organ. The striking weather vane atop City Hall is a replica of a 15th century sailing ship.

THESE PLAQUES ARE DEDICATED
IN LOVING MEMORY OF
Carl S. Pedersen
1-29-05 to 12-23-87
Who immigrated to Portland from Denmark as a yound boy
Presented to the City of Portland by his Daughters
Sarah Pedersen de Bores & Marie Morrison
 June 1992

With Heartfelt thanks and appreication to
Terrance J DeWer & Associateds
Design & Instaltaion

John K. Moulton
HIstorian

Ben O'Reilly Jr.



7 First Parish Church 425 Congress Street
The original Congregational Church was replaced in 1740 by one known as “Old Jerusalem”. The present building dates from 1825 and is built of granite quarried in Freeport, Maine. This well known landmark withstood the Mowatt bombardment of 1775. The bannerett weather vane originally stood atop “Old Jerusalem”.

8. Our Lady of Victory
Monument Square was originally known as Market Square. The name changed in 1891, when the imposing Our Lady of Victory Monument was dedicated. The monument was financed by the Portland Soldiers & Sailors Monument Association who began raising funds in 1883 and laid the cornerstone was 1889.

9. Longfellow House & Gardens 425 Congress St
Dwarfed by tall adjacent buildings stands a three-story brick house home of Henry Wadsworth Longfellow during his Youth. The house was built of bricks transported from Philadelphia in 1785-86 by the poet’s grandfather, General Pely Wadsworth. The Gardens in the rear of the house are much the same now as they were in Longfellow’s day Longfellow composed some of this early works here. 10. Deering Oaks This parks was initiated in 1879, when Nathaniel and Henry Deering donated property to the city. Subsequent additions continued until 1922, when the completed area totalled 53.7 acres. Several hundred Indians attacked Anthony Brackett’s farm on the park site, but were repulsed. The park is centered around a duck pond and included ball fields, tennis courts, and a playground. Longfellow celebrates the park is his poem “My Lost Youth.”

11. Western Promenade
In 1860, George Bramhall settled here on the highest ground in Portland (175’ above sea level) on a 460 acre tract, now known as Bramhall Hill. The White Mountains and other ranges can be viewed to the west and northwest. The bronze statue honoring the heroism of Thomas Brackett Reed (1839-1902) is opposite the West Street entrance.

12. Victoria Mansion 109 Danforth Street
This Italian Villa style residence was built in 1859 to 1863 by Ruggles Sylvester Morse. Architect Henry Austin selected reddish brownstone that was shipped from Connecticut and finished on a wharf in Portland. Twelve painters created the interior’s elaborate decoration, while other artisans- wood carvers, plasterers, silversmiths and such - finished the scheme.
Right Map (Counter-Clockwise from top left)
1. Mackworth Island
Mackworth Island, in the town of Falmouth, was given to the State by former Gov. Percival Baxter, and is home to The Baxter School for the Deaf. The island, also known as Mackey’s or Baxter Island, is accessed via a causeway. A public nature trail circles the island

2. Cousins Island
This island, located in Yarmouth, is entirely residential, with one exception, being the Central Maine Power Company’s oil fired power plant with its readily visible 425’ smoke stack. Originally developed as an agricultural community to supply hay to the mainland, the island is connected to the mainland by a bridge. A smaller island, Littlejohn, lies to the southeast and is accessed from Cousins via a causeway.

3. The Hussey Anchorage
The large body of water between Long Island and Great Diamond Island can accommodate many large vessels at anchor waiting to unload their cargo. This WWII anchorage of the U.S. Navy was a refueling and supply base. Hussey Sound provided a sea approach broader and deeper than the channel past Portland Head.

4. The Diamond Islands
Great Diamonds and Little Diamond Islands are connected by a sandbar which is covered at high tide. Earlier known as “Hog” Islands, the name did not appeal to summer residents and was changed to “Diamond” in the 1880’s. Fort McKinley, active in the World Wars I and II, and sited at the north end of Great Diamond, is being converted to residential use. Little Diamond was the site of the U.S. Lighthouse Service Station from 1876 to 1939.

5. Fort Gorges
Named for Sir Ferdinando Gorges, this granite and earthworks fort was built during the Civil War in 1865-67 to protect the inner harbor from possible Confederate attacks from northeast and northwest approaches. It was never used in battle, however and is now the property of the City of Portland.

6. Peaks Island
 A mix of year-round and summer residents create the largest island population in Casco Bay. This 720 acre island was owned in 1632 by George Cleeve, who was granted title by Sir Ferdinando Gorges and received his grant from the British Crown. The Gem Theater was home to Summer Plays performed by famous Broadway casts.

Early History of Portland
In 1623, Christopher Levett built a house on a nearby island, probably House Island, and a small party spent the winter there. Thus began the permanent settling of the Portland area. The pioneer settler in Portland proper was George Cleeve, a native of Plymouth, England. Cleeve, along with a man named Tucker, who did not remain here, built a dwelling on land now called Portland about 1632. The small settlement was later named Falmouth, discarding the Indian name Machigonne. In 1786, the names was finally Changed to Portland (Maine did not become a state until 1820) Three disasters struck the City: an Indian raid in 1676, shelling by the British fleet in 1775, and a sweeping fire in 1866. Portland survived all this and prospered, adopting for its motto the latin “RESURGAM” (I rise again). Its harbor was- and is- Portland’s major attraction. Protected by the Casco Bay Islands, the Fore River meets the sea in deep sheltered waters. it is the nearest deep water port to Europe. Portland’s early history was closely connected to maritime history. Abundant fishing grounds beyond the island are a further asset. Portland Head Light (1791) and the Portland Observatory (1807) atop Munjoy Hill are early evidence of the importance of sea trade. The native poet Longfellow referred to Portland thus: Often I think of the beautiful town that is seated on the sea.

7. Fort Scammel
Sited on the south end of House Island, this fort was built in 1861-69 of granite and earthworks. Fort Scammel replaced a much smaller wooden blockhouse, fated from 1808. This fort and Fort Preble on Spring Point guarded the harbor entrance. Neither fort was ever used in combat.

8. Whitehead Passage
An entrance to the harbor used by smaller vessels, the channel lies between Whitehead Cliffs on Cushing Island and Brackett Point on Peaks Island. Several ledges and shallow water make this a dangerous foul weather route.

9. Cushing Island
Summer home to forty families, the master plan for this privately owned island was proposed by landscape architect Frederick Law Olmsted in 1883. Portland architect John Calvin Stevens designed many of the cottages. The island was used as a refuge from Indian attacks in 1676.

10. Portland Harbor Channel
This narrow passage lies between Cushing Island and Portland Head. It can accommodate vessels drawing 45 feet of water. The aircraft carrier U.S.S. Kennedy has traversed this channel twice in recent years, under the skillful direction of a Portland Pilot.

11. Spring Point Light
Built of cast iron from Allentown, Pennsylvania Rolling Mills, this light commence flashing in 189*. Now fully automated, it marks a submerged ledge running out from Spring Point on the mainland. The breakwater connecting the light and Spring Point was built in 1951.

12. Breakwater Light “Bug” Light
This small lighthouse was built in 1855 and used until 1982. The granite breakwater dates from 1836 and was designed to shelter the inner harbor from severe northeast storms. The cast iron base is a replica of a choragic monument in Athens, Greece.

Files

Fort Allen City Map.JPG
DSC_0287.JPG

Citation

“Fort Allen City Maps,” Portland’s Historical Markers, accessed July 16, 2018, http://markers.portlandculturalhistory.org/items/show/4.

Geolocation